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1 Re: Q&A - to be sorted on Wed Jul 01, 2009 7:21 am

Z 04 April 2009 13:58

Assalam alaikum,

I have slight confusion on the interrogative structure, but perhaps that's because I was not present at the time it was being explained. I have understood the difference between "hadha qalamu" and "hal hadha qalamu?". You mention "ahadha qalamu?" is the same as "hal hadha qalamu?"...so which one do we use or are they used in different contexts?

JazakAllah Khairan
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Arabic Lessons 04 April 2009 22:05

وعليكم السلام

First of all please note that either the word has tanween or it has an الـ and one ضـمـة if it is definite.

Therefore, your examples should read, "hadha qalamun" and "hal hadha qalamun?"

You are correct in saying that أ has the same function as هَـلْ. Therefore, the following two sentences are identical;

هَلْ هَذَا قَـلَـمٌ؟ = أهَـذَا قَـلَـمٌ؟

It is just an alternative way to make a question.

iA the explanation above suffices.

مع السلامة
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Nurjahan 04 April 2009 23:47

Assalamualaikum wa Rahmatullah,

This may be in the wrong section but can you check this please?

تقبل الله (may Allah accept) من (from) كلنا (All of us?)

And I read it as 'TakbalalAllahu min Kana' (kani or kanu?!)

I'm assuming its mansubun (by the process of elimination) but I'm not sure...

Jazakillahu Khairan
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Arabic Lessons 05 April 2009 12:31

وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله

تَـقَـبَّـلَ actually means, "Allah has accepted" in LITERAL meaning but your translation is ok. I will explain why the past tense is used while future is meant.

Another example of this is جَـزَاكَ اللَـهُ خَـيْـراً which means "Allah has already rewarded you with good". Here we translate as, "may reward you with good".

كُـلِـنَـا means "all of us". There is a كَـسْـرَةٌ on the ل due to the preposition coming before it. In your analysis above, you dropped the ل from your transliteration.

Thus, please find the Arabic sentence below (with all the vowels) as well as its translation.

تَـقَـبَّـلَ اللُـهُ مِنْ كُـلِـنَـا

May Allah accept from all of us.

آمـيـن

As a side point, your saying of, "Jazaakillahu Khairan" applies to one female. For one male this is "JazaakAllahu Khairan".

مع السلامة
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Ambia 05 April 2009 14:17

Assalamualaikum,

I have a question with regards to the following:

اشمس والقمر فى السماء

my confusion lies with the identification of the خبر is this a case of the omitted predicate?

Also in a nominal sentence is it possible to have more than one مبتدا

JazaakAllahu Khairan
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Arabic Lessons 05 April 2009 22:04

وعليكم السلام

The first point to note is that the there is a missing ل from the word الشمس in your example.

You are correct in saying that there can be two subjects in a nominal sentence. This would have to be seperated by و. Similarly, there would be two predicates seperated by و.

In the example, الشمسُ والقمرُ في السماءِ, the predicates (there are two) are both the word "present". To further clarify, one would be for the sun and the other for the moon.

Finally, note that مبتدأ is spelt with a أ.

I hope that answers your question.

مع السلامة
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Nurjahan 05 April 2009 22:19

Assalamualaikum Wa Rahmatullah,

The following is one of the examples that was used in class. I have attempted to take down the explanation in Arabic, please can you check if this was recorded correctly as I will attempt to work off this example for my homework.

الولدُ جالسٌ في البيتِ

١) الولدُ مبتدأ و مرفوعٌ ب الضمةٌ
٢) و جالسٌ خبرٌ مرفوعٌ ب الكسرةٌ
٣) في حرفوحرٌ
٤) البيتُ اسمٌ مجرورٌ ب الكرةٌ

JazaakAllahu Khairan (I hope i got it right this time!)
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Arabic Lessons 05 April 2009 22:20

وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله

Please find the grammatical breakdown of the sentence, الولدُ جالسٌ في البيتِ as follows;

الولدُ مبتدأ مرفوع بالضمة
جالسٌ خبر مرفوع بالضمة
في حرف جر
البيتِ اسم مجرور بالكسرة

Please ensure correct spelling and orthography.

مع السلامة
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Anonymous 05 April 2009 22:21

Assalaamu alaikum

JazaakAllahu khairan for a very constructive summary lesson. I just have a few questions:

1) Following the listing of dhamma, fatha, kasra and sukoon for each of the marfoo', mansoob, majoor and majzoom cases respectively, is this all known as 'inflection' in English and are cases known as 'Haalaatun' in Arabic? Also could you give me a precise definition for what 'An nahw' means, is it the same as 'syntax'?

2) I noticed that when 'hal' preceedes a word beginning with 'al' the definite article, that the laam of 'hal' joins into the rest of the sentence as 'Halil..' I understnad that this is for vocative harmony, but WHY is the alif missed out? If this change is made deliberately, is there a name for this type of overlooked alif/hamza?

Shukran jazeelan

Wassalaam
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Arabic Lessons 05 April 2009 22:31

وعليكم السلام

Please find your responses below.

1) This should read "majroor" and not "majoor".

Do not worry yourself with translating each term into English. This is unecessary and increases the probabilty of confusion. Just note that the word إعراب encompasses all the cases and indicators.

2) I strictly mentioned to keep أ and ا seperate at the beginning of lessonn 1. The reason is that ا also known as همزة الوصل is not pronounced (it is dropped) when a vowel preceedes it.
However, أ also known as همزة القطع will always be pronounced despite the vowels preceeding it.
Thus, when we have, هَـلِ the همزة الوصل is dropped as explained above.

Should this still remain unclear, please ask in the next class in the 10 minute Q&A session.

مع السلامة
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2 Re: Q&A - to be sorted on Wed Jul 01, 2009 7:31 am

Anonymous 06 April 2009 13:57

فَسْئلوا اهلَ الذِّكرِ اِنْ كُنْتُمْ لا تَعْلَمُونَ

Assalaamu alaikum wa rahmatullaahi.

I wish to ask a series of questions that I have been pondering since yesterday's lesson, I hope this is not too much trouble for you inshAllah:

PREPOSITIONS
1) Ya Ustaadh, as you explained, the particles 'hal' and 'a' are placed in front of a sentence to render that sentence interrogative,the question I am posing is if there is a specific rule for which particular particle should be used with non-human nouns e.g. 'Al-masjidu' and which with human nouns like 'At-taalibu'? For example, is it is better to say 'Hali il-masjidu maftoohun?' instead of 'Aal masjidu maftoohun?'..and better to say 'Aal waladu taweelun' instead of 'Hali il-waladu taweelun?' does the use of 'hal' reduce from the integrity of the sentence or is it completely equivalent to 'a'?

2) The huroofu jarrin regarding time that you stated in the classnotes e.g. 'before', 'after', I once read that they were termed as 'duroofun zamaanun' could this be translated as 'time-modifiers' as in English, or is it an incorrect term altogether?

3) Why is the word after harfu jarrin in the majroor(genetive)case and thus marked by kasra, is it because it is in a possessive construction and is the preposition itself definite because it is specific (and by virtue of being possessed?)

GENDER
4) So far, you have asked us to learn masculine words only (I assume by that there must be feminine words also) but does a 'neutral' gender exist, like in the English 'to be'? Also what if there is a mixed group of male and female? Which gender should you choose (or is masculine the default gender in that situation)?

DEMOSTRATIVE PRONOUNS
5) You have explained demonstrative pronouns 'haadha' and 'dhaalika', can you explain what word or words should be used to say 'it'?

OMITTED/ELIPTICAL PREDICATE
6) Does the omitted predicate 'mawjoodun' (which you said means 'available') also mean 'present'? e.g. 'Al waladu (is) [present] fil baiti?'

VOCATIVE PARTICLE
7) A final side point, when I address you mu'allim, as 'Ya Ustaadh' is Ustaadh here definite or indefinite? Has the 'Ya' changed the definiteness of the word or its case in any way? Should I say 'Ya Ustaadhu' or 'Ya Ustaadhun'? I have a feeling that Ya is definite because Ya is addressing you and is specific, am I right?

That is all for now, alhamdu lillah.

JazaakAllahu khairal jazaa'i

Wassalaam
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Arabic Lessons 06 April 2009 14:15

وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله

Before I start responding to your questions, please notice that your ayah is spelt wrong.

اهلَ and اِنْ should both be spelt أهل and إن with a أ .

Below are the responses;

1) This has now been attended to. We can use أ and هل interchangeably. The only place we use أ over هل is with لَـيْـسَ (not). ie. we say أليس طويلاً? We will cover this is in the coming lessons.

2) As we said, a preposition is a word that links two other words in terms of space or time. In Arabic the, ظرف مكان relates to action completed spacially and ظرف زمان relates to action completed in terms of time.

3) It is مجرور as that is the rule for prepositions. We have not studied posession at all yet. Therefore, the reason has nothing to do with posession. It is merely the fact that it comes after a preposition.

4) We have not studied "gender" as of yet. Please ask this question after our lesson on it.

5) The Arabic word for, demonstrative pronoun is, اسـم الإشارة . It literall means, "a noun of pointing (out something)".

6) This is correct. It can also mean present.

7) We have not studied يا in our lessons. However, this has already been attended to in the Q&A from Lesson 1. The answer can be found on the link;

http://onlinearabiclessons.blogspot.com/2009/03/q-arabic-related-questions-from-lesson.html

مع السلامة
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Z 08 April 2009 20:53

Assalamu alaikum,

I have a question regarding the omitted predicate. In the sentence:

اَلْـوَلَـدُ فِـي الْـبَـيْـتِ

You mentioned the omitted predicate, however my question is, if we were to break this sentence down grammatically then wouldn't فِـي الْـبَـيْـتِ stand as the predicate of the sentence? As it is giving information about the subject اَلْـوَلَـدُ . This is what I have been taught by my Arabic studies lecturers.

JakaAllah Khairun, May Allah reward you for your efforts.

Ma'asalama
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Arabic Lessons 08 April 2009 22:16

وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله

As explained during the lesson, many teachers say that the predicate is in fact the prepositional sentence. This is in fact wrong as in Arabic we say that a prepositional sentence can never be the predicate.

I stated that MANY people do not know this as you may recall.

I hope this attends to your query.

ابـــن منظـــور
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Ambia 13 April 2009 19:49

Assalamualikum.

I have a question in relation to the following sentence:

ومن أين عمار

'Where' (Ayna) in this example follows a preposition however it does not take the genitive form. Is this because it isn't a noun?

Please clarify.

JazakAllah Khairan.
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Arabic Lessons 13 April 2009 19:54

وعليكم السلام

You are correcting in saying that أين is not a noun that has tanween. Thus, we are not able to change the vowels. It might be better to think of this as the past tense verbs. It is just fixed upon الفتحة.

We will not delve into this topic in this course.

iA that provides some light on the issue.

ابـــن منظـــور
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Nurjahan 13 April 2009 23:28

Assalamualaikum wa Rahmatullah,

I was reviewing the class notes with a friend and we came up with a few questions we were unable to answer regarding lesson 2 notes.

In the notes there were the following questions which were to be converted to nominal sentences and broken down grammatically:

1) The merchant is standing in the market
2) The teacher is sitting in the school in China.
3) The student is writing (كََـاتِـبٌ) in the notebook

When looking at the notes in hindsight we were confused as to the type of sentences these were as they could be seen as verbal sentences for instance, in question one, standing could be the verb, the merchant the subject and the market the object?

Therefore, the question comes to mind, can a English sentence be both verbal and nominal simultaneously when being translated to Arabic??

Sorry if my question is confusing!

JazakAllahu Khairan
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Arabic Lessons 27 April 2009 12:23

وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله

In Arabic, a sentence is either a nominal one or a verbal one.

The word "جالس" means a "sitter". ie a person that is sitting. In translation we do not say "He هس a sitter" but rather "he is sitting". Thus, in English it sounds as though the sentence is verbal but in reality it is a nominal one.

If, on the other hand, we used the word "يجلس", this would mean "he is sitting" and would constitute a verbal sentence.

I hope this answers your question.

ابــن منظــور
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3 Omitted predicate on Wed Oct 06, 2010 3:20 pm

Assalamu Alaikum

I was speaking to a Libyan sister with regards to the grammar breakdown of خالد في البيت. It’s probably unnecessary for me to discuss this but out of interest I would like to know whether it is correct. I was told that في البيت is في محل رفع خبر (as well as حرف جر plus اسم مجرور)?

What does في محل رفع خبر mean?

Jazakum Allahu Khayran

Wassalam


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4 Re: Q&A - to be sorted on Fri Oct 08, 2010 6:33 pm

وعليكم السلام


As mentioned in the lesson, I stated that it would also be "correct" to say that في البيت can be said to be the preposition along with its genitive noun "in the place of the nominative predicate". This is what في محل رفع الخبر means. Please note that it is not said في محل رفع خبر as you mentioned.

However, this explanation is a more elementary analysis of grammar as it does not specify the actual predicate itself! Thus, please do not use this way, as this explanation of grammar is more simplified/foundational.

I hope that attends to your query.



ابــــــن منظــــــور

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5 Surah An-Naas on Tue Oct 12, 2010 9:37 am

Assalamu Alaykum

I just wanted to ask about the following ayahs in Surah An-Naas...
قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ النَّاسِ- Here I can understand why بِرَبِّ is majroor (genetive by the kasrah), as the word Rabb is preceded by a preposition, however I can't understand the following two verses... Why is مَلِكِ and إِلَهِ majroor.

مَلِكِ النَّاسِ

إِلَهِ النَّاسِ

I'm assuming this is a ruling that we are yet to learn?

Jazakum Allahu Khayran

Wassalam

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6 Re: Q&A - to be sorted on Wed Oct 13, 2010 9:22 am

Nurjahan

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طالبـــة ابـــن منظـــور
طالبـــة ابـــن منظـــور
Walaikumusalaam wa Rahmatullah,

I believe the reason why ملك and إله are majroor may be because the idea of the original preposition is carried onto the latter sentences. So for example; it is as if there is a parenthesised 'with' in front of the nouns which follow:

I seek refuge with the Lord of mankind
(with) the King of mankind
(with) the God of mankind

Maybe Ustaadh or another student may want to add to my comment?

Wasalaam

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7 Re: Q&A - to be sorted on Mon Oct 18, 2010 1:25 pm

Ambia

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طالبـــة ابـــن منظـــور
طالبـــة ابـــن منظـــور
Assalamualaikum,

Urm my understanding of it is, is that both ملك and إله are majroor because they refer to the same Lord (i.e بِرَبِّ ) so the same ruling of بِ will apply.

For instance in Suratul Fatihah Ayah 1 الْحَمْدُ للّهِ رَبِّ the same concept applies since لِ makes الله majroor as well as رب since its referring to the same Lord.

I think this concept is referred to as بَدَل (Badal)

Hope I've not confused anyone Smile

Wasalaam

Rukshana

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8 Re: Q&A - to be sorted on Fri Nov 05, 2010 11:17 pm

الماس

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طالبـــة ابـــن منظـــور
طالبـــة ابـــن منظـــور
Ambia wrote:
For instance in Suratul Fatihah Ayah 1 الْحَمْدُ للّهِ رَبِّ the same concept applies since لِ makes الله majroor as well as رب since its referring to the same Lord.

I think this concept is referred to as بَدَل (Badal)

السلام علبكم


I agree with both answers.

The ملك and إله are an extention of the same رب , and the ب renders all three words majroor.

When the condition of a noun is near equivalent to another, it can be 'exchanged' in place of the other noun while still leaving the meaning of the sentence intact.

As we know, الملك or إله can be used interchageably to describe the condition of Allah without decreasing him, i.e. Allah is The King, and The King is The Lord, and The Lord is Allah. All are one and the same.

This type of noun is descriptive or a synonym of the other noun, WITHOUT being referred to as an adjective. However, the grammer/declension on each noun, will be the same as if it were an adjective of the other noun. Meaning case, gender, definition and number will all be identical. Therefore, as بِرَبِّ is majroor, then the other two descriptive nouns will follow suit and mirror its case, etc.

Whenever these exchangeable nouns occur, it is referred to grammatically as بدل


والسلام

ps: For those who have encountered بدل in class, these two lines of Al-Ajrumiyyah poem should summarise it:

اذا اِسْمٌ أُبْدِلَ مِنْ اِسمٍ يُنْحَلُ
إِعْرَابَهُ وَالْفِعْلُ أَيضاً يُبْدَلَ



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